high Aswan dam
The one-time border town was, however, poised on the brink of change, Between 1898 and 1902 the first dam, the high Aswan dam , was built, What is today the Museum on Elephantine (19.54) was originally constructed as a rest house for engineers engaged in this work.
The High dam
was subsequently heightened twice (p.101)_ Even so, the Aswan Dam was not sufiicient for the needs of the ever-expanding population, and Egypt’s president Garnal Abd al-Nasser then ordered the construction of the High Dam.
The project was carried out between 1960 and 1971 (p.102l_ During this decade, the Nubian people were relocated in Egypt and Sudan, and Egypt launched an international campaign through UNESCO to save the monuments of Nubia.
These in- cluded the temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel (Chapter 6), the temples on the island of Philae (Chapter 3), and large Nubian shrines and temples, some of which have been re-erected near the High Dam, at New Kalabsha (p.107). Other temples were transported abroad.
The temple of Debod
has been rebuilt on a cliff in Madrid, the temple of TaH`a is now in a courtyard of the Museum in Leiden, and Dendur Temple stands in a special hall in the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
The High Dam, which changed life in Egypt generally forma subsistence economy to a government-dictated one has had dramatic repercussions in Aswan.
During the past twenty years, a variety of development plans envisioned in the early days of the Revolution have begun to take shape.
The most far-reaching of these has been the modernization of the city. It is no longer simply a remote frontier town and pleasant winter resort.
A number of industries have grown in the area:
chemical, food, and beverage production, as well as mining, quarrying, and the expansive Kima Fertilizer Factory, have tumed Aswan into a thriving urban center.
This has resulted in a significant population growth, from 63,000 in 1960 to 144,000 in 1976, and an estimated half a million inhabitants in 1993.
This number will no doubt continue to rise in response to the demand for labor that industry and tourism promotion brings.
Educational institutions were set as an early goal in the 1960s.
Several have been realized, including the first African University, where a variety of non-traditional subjects, including tropical agriculture, energy, and mining, are taught.