Hatshepsut temple (DEIR EL BAHRI):
Hatshepsut temple Framed by steep cliffs and poised in elegant relief, stands the temple of Deir el Bahri. justly deserving of its name ‘Most Splendid of All’, it was the inspiration of the beautiful Queen Makere Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I.
What strikes one first when approaching this temple is its unity with nature.
Far from being belittled by the stark purity of the cliffs behind, the temple was so designed that the cliffs form a backcloth.
whose royal lineage to the Great Royal Wife Ahmose made her the only lawful heir among Thutmose I’s children, his sons being by minor wives, was prevented by her sex from succeeding as Pharaoh.
She consequently married her half-brother Thutmose ll.
During his reign and her subsequent co-regency with Thutmose III she retained power in her capable hands.
To appreciate the temple of Deir el Bahri one must know a little ofthe character of the beautiful woman who conceived it.
She was indisputably iron-willed and not willing to let the fact that she was 21 woman stand in her way.
She assumed a throne name — Makere.
wore a royal skirt and ceremonial beard, the badges of kingship.
proved her right to the throne in numerous reliefs of her divine birth.
Once Hatshepsut had secured her right to the throne she embarked on the building of temples and monuments and also on the restoration of damaged sanctuaries.
This was perhaps especially important to her since she could hardly record her name in history through military conquest and sought to do so through architectural magnificence.
she had erected in Karnak temple were so placed that the glittering tips should ‘inundate the Two Lands just as it appears in the horizon of heaven’.
And she planned her mortuary temple to be no less spectacular.
Her architect Senmut, whilst drawing inspiration from the adjacent Ilth Dynasty temple of the Pharaohs Mentuhotep II and III, carried it out on a very much larger scale.
Adopting the idea of the terrace and adding an extra tier, he made such imposing use of it that he deserves special credit.
He designed a terraced sanctuary comprising courts, one above the other with connecting inclined planes at the center.
Shrines were dedicated to Hathor and Anubis and chambers devoted to the cult of the queen and her parents.
was a labour of love, for Senmut, who Hrst entered the service of Hatshepsut as tutor to her daughter Nefrure, had ambitions and abilities that took him high on the ladder of success.
not only ended with no fewer than forty titles but conducted himself as a member of the royal family, enjoying privileges and prerogatives never before enjoyed by a man of humble birth.
He was Hatshepsut’s supporter and lover and doubtless also her political adviser.
was also granted a privilege accorded to no official before or after: that of constructing his tomb near the mortuary temple of his monarch.
Hatshepsut had two tombs.
Her body was found in neither.
The first she had dug in the Valley of the Kings where all members of the royal family were laid to rest in the 18th Dynasty.
The second, after she became monarch, was in the Taket Zeid Valley, south of Deir el Bahri and overlooking the Valley of the Kings.
The former tomb was so designed that the corridors, burrowed 213 metres beneath the barrier hill, should lead to the tomb chamber itself directly beneath the mortuary temple.
was as though, while wishing to construct her tomb in the royal valley, she wanted at the same time to conform to the ancient practice of linking the tomb with the mortuary temple.
She never achieved her goal.
Bad rock or other causes led to the passage being continued in a swerve 98 metres below ground level and then abandoned.
It is devoid of relief and inscription and, apart from limestone slabs relating chapters from
the Book of the Dead in red and black sketch form, is a rather pathetic and crude passage.
In her red sandstone sarcophagus the body of her father Thutmose I had been laid to rest, until the priests
of the zoth Dynasty removed his mummy to the shaft of Deir el Bahri (page 84) for safekeeping. In fact Hatshepsut’s sarcophagus had been enlarged to receive his body.
Why was Thutmose I
laid to rest in his daughter’s tomb? Because his own had already been used by Thutmose II, who died prematurely after a short eo-regency with Hatshepsut.
And Hatshepsut’s mummy? It probably suffered
the same fate as her statues and representations in murals.
For, when Thutmose III
finally asserted himself and expelled her from the throne, his years of frustrated energy swelled forth in a campaign of destruction when he obliterated from every temple throughout the land, but from Deir el Bahri in particular, every reference to the female Pharaoh.
Later, when Akhenaten removed references to Amon from the temples of Egypt, the inscriptions of Deir el Bahri were further mutilated.
endeavored to restore them but the work- man-ship was inferior.
And in this condition the beautiful temple remained, with only minor alterations taking place until Christian The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri.
monks set up a convent there.
Sadly, but understandably, they too scraped the walls and added to the overall desecration.
Two of the learned members of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt in 1798 first made the temple of Deir el Bahri known to the modern world, releasing part of it from its sandy embrace. Champollion was responsible for deciphering the hieroglyphics and attempting to unravel the family feud.
Mariette interpreted the picturesque reliefs of the Voyage to Punt.
In 1894 the Egyptian Exploration Fund started to exhume the temple properly but their work was not completed for nine years.
Some of the colonnades
were roofed in and certain other necessary alterations were carried out to preserve the remaining reliefs and colonnades. For twenty years now a Polish team has been excavating and re-constructing the temple.
In 1969 they unearthed a small temple built by Thutmose III to the left of the upper terrace of Hatshepsut’s temple and parallel with the rock-hevvn inner chambers.
In 1970 they unearthed what at first appeared to be another terrace but has since been described as a protective roof to the rear ofthe temple to safe guard against falling rock.
Lower and Central Courts We ascend the temple of Deir el Bahri
from the lower court where two colonnades have been restored.
These comprise twenty-two columns on each side arranged in double rows.
The first row shows them on the deck of the barge and below a trumpeter leads a group of archers to the inauguration ceremony.
Passing between the two colonnades we come to the central court which leads to the upper terrace.
We are now faced with two famous colonnades. On the left (B) is the Colonnade of the
Expedition to Punt. On the right (C) is the Birth Colonnade.
Hatshepsut temple Punt Colonnade
The Punt Colonnade commemorates an expedition ordered by Queen Hatshepsut to the Land of Punt (in the East Africa/ Somalia area) to bring back myrrh and incense trees to be planted on the terraces of the temple.
The relief tells us that Amon himself ordered the expedition and it appears that Hatshepsut not only carried out the divine will but made the expedition a major mission.
On the southern wall (rt) we can see the village in Punt where the houses are constructed over water with ladders leading up to the entrances.
We can see the mayor of the city, the inhabitants, the grazing cattle and even the village dog.
The Egyptian envoy and his entourage are greeted in welcome and are shown presenting merchandise for barter.
The fat, deformed queen of Punt is there.
The hieroglyphics relate that this illustrious monarch traveled by donkey and, with obvious wit, the artists have shown the little donkey itself.
Throughout the span of Egyptian history,
from pre-dynastic times to the fall of the empire, it was not often that deformed or physically handicapped persons were sculpted or drawn.
The few that were belonged to the earlier dynasties and were people of the lower classes.
The portrayal of the queen of Punt suffering from the swollen legs of elephantiasis, and without even a royal carriage for transport, makes one feel that neither Hatshepsut nor her artists had much respect for her.
On the back wall at (b) the Egyptian fleet sets sail, arrives in Punt and we see the transportation of the incense trees planted in small tubs (top row) and on board the vessel (lower row).
These will be carried back to Deir el Bahri,
there to be planted in the court.
In fact the roots are still on site to this day. One cannot but feel, divine will notwithstanding, that more than a little of Hatshepsut’s whim and fancy went into the elaboration of
the whole mission.
In a joyous representation at the center of the long back wall (c) the queen (defaced) can be seen offering the fruits of her expedition to Amon: incense trees, wild game, cattle,
electrum and bows.
The whole mural speaks of success and pleasure.
Hatshepsut temple Shrine of Hathor
To the left of the Colonnade of Punt stands the Shrine of Hathor.
It has two roofed-in colonnades with Hathor columns leading to the shrine itself which comprises three chambers, one behind the other, and each with several recesses.
In the colonnaded court is a large sacrificial scene on the southern wall (d) showing a boat containing the Hathor-cow with Queen Hatshepsut drinking from the udder.
On the rear western wall is a representation of Thutmose II (replacing Hatshepsut) having his hand licked by the Hathor-cow.
In the Hrst chamber (e) Hatshepsut or Thutmose III is represented with several of the deities.
The colour is excellent, especially on the ceiling which is decorated with stars on a blue sky.
room ( f ) shows Hatshepsut (scraped) making offerings to Hathor,who stands on the sacred barge beneath the canopy.
This is a relief of unusual beauty. Ehi, son of Horus, is the little nude boy who holds a sistrum in front of the queen.
The third room (g) has an unusual pointed roof and the wall reliefs show Hatshepsut (on each of the side walls) drinking from the udder of the cow, Hathor, with Amon standing before them.
On the back wall is another particularly beautiful relief of Hatshepsut standing between Hathor and Amon with the latter holding before her face the hieroglyph symbol of life.
Hatshepsut templeBirth Colonnade
The Birth Colonnade corresponds exactly to the Punt Colonnade. As already mentioned, it was constructed to allay concern about Hatshepsut’s right to the throne.
The theory of divine origin was above discussion, let alone dispute, and this is shown in a scene of the ram-headed Khnum shaping Hatshepsut and her lea on the potter’s wheel (h) under instructions from Amon who has impregnated the queen mother.
Among the particularly fine representations is that of the queen mother Ahmose (i), full with child.
She radiates joy and stands dignified in her pregnancy, smiling a smile of supreme contentment as she is led to the birth room.
Unfortunately most of the scene in which Amon and the queen mother are borne to the heavens by two goddesses seated on a lion-headed couch, is badly damaged.
But the grotesque figure of the god Bes can be seen in the lower row .
In the scene of the actual birth the queen mother sits on a chair which is placed on a couch held aloft by various gods.
This in turn stands upon another couch also supported by gods.
The queen mother has a retinue of female attendants.
Hathor then presents Hatshepsut to Amon and the twelve eas of the divine child are suckled by twelve goddesses (le).
Hatshepsut and her ka have been erased but in the scene at the end of the wall (I) they pass through the hands of various goddesses who record the divine birth.
is shown in the presence of the ibis-headed Thoth, the ram-headed Khnum and the frog-headed Heket.
She also converses with Amon who tells her that her daughter shall exercise kingship throughout the land.
By depicting Hatshepsut as a boy and by repeating the theme of Amon laying a hand of blessing on her shoulder, the most important prejudices against her rule are overcome.
Hatshepsut temple Small and Upper Courts, Sanctuary
To the right of the Birth Colonnade is a small court (E) comprising twelve sixteen-sided columns in three rows, and leading to the chapel of Anubis, which has three chambers.
The walls of the court have excellently preserved reliefs, though representations of the queen have all been damaged.
On the right-hand wall above the small recess is a scene of the monarch making a wine-offering to the hawk-headed Sokaris, god of the dead.
On the rear wall offerings are made to Amon (to the left) and Anubis (to the right) with the sacrificial gifts heaped up before each.
The Upper Court (F)
was the part of the temple that suffered most severely at the hands of the Christian monks.
It has been closed to visitors for some years for reconstruction.
It includes a small vestibule leading to one of the few altars (G) to come down to us from antiquity on their original sites, and to a sacrificial hall with reliefs adorning the walls.
At the back of the court are a number of small recesses, some larger than others, and the central recess leads
into the sanctuary itself which was cut directly into the cliff backing the temple.
The granite portal forming the entrance dates from the time of the Ptolemies.
The S rmctuary (I) comprises three chambers.
The first two have vaulted ceilings and adjoining recesses.
In the first chamber is a scene (on the upper reaches of the right-hand wall)
of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III and their little daughter, Princess Ranofru,
sacrificing to the barge of Amon.
Behind them are the queen’s father Thutmose I with his wife Ahmose and their little daughter Bitnofru.
A similar scene, somewhat damaged, is represented on the left-hand wall, with Thutmose III kneeling.
In the inner room of the sanctuary the reliefs
show a marked deterioration from the worthy representations in the reign of Hatshepsut.
This room was restored by Euergetes II.
As already mentioned, Hatshepsut’s mummy was never found.
Hatshepsut temple was neither in the tomb she constructed in the Valley of the Kings, nor in the one excavated south of the mortuary temple, though it has been suggested that her body may be one of the couple of ‘unknown Women’ from the shaft at Deir el Bahri.
Whether she was poisoned that Thutmose III might take over the throne, stabbed by her lover, killed by oflicials jealous of Senmut’s favour, or died a natural death remains a matter for speculation.